Quenington Land Owners and Tenants
1787-1831

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Preface

This analysis has been interrupted by the lockdown resulting from the coronavirus emergency of spring and summer 2020. There is still background documentation to be studied when access to sources (Gloucestershire Archives) resumes, denied so far for three months. However, the tax files and the available background present a coherent picture which can be updated as necessary.

A link to a list of the owners and tenants, as well as to the tax tables, is provided in the left margin.

The figures in the form 1-2-10 in the narrative and elsewhere cross-refer to the 'codes' in the tax tables linked in the left margin here, and which identify the individual properties.

This file contains, below, a Summary, a description of the tax records, details of what is known of the properties, and brief details of some of the people featured. This last in particular is subject to amendment as additional information becomes available.

Summary

Land tax records for 1787 to 1831 for Quenington, now generally available, give details of the owners and tenants of land subject to the tax. There are details of some fifteen properties between 1787 and 1803, with a reduced number thereafter. Many of the properties are not identified, especially those that were delisted after 1803. There are identifications after 1826 and it is possible to establish continuiuty on such as Manor Farm, Mawley Farm, the glebe lands and the paper mill.

Much of the land was owned by outsiders from Coln St Aldwyns, Bibury and Fairford. An exception was that owned by John King of Quenington farming stock, though he was the last of the line; probably also by William Ivin and perhaps by the Tombs family, though they may have come from nearby Coln St Aldwyns.

The Tax Record

The Quenington land tax records for 1787 to 1831 list the annual amounts of tax payable for property owned in the village and are "An Assessment made in Pursuance of the Act of Parliament passed for granting an Aid to his said Majesty by a land tax to be raised in Great Britain for the service of the year [specified] at 4 shillings in the pound" [ie 20 per cent].

At first some fifteen properties were listed. They will have been houses and land but were not specified as such at this stage. The number was reduced to single figures after 1803, some having been exonorated from tax as the result of the Land Tax Redemption Act of 1798. The sum raised was little under sixty-six pounds a year at first, reducing to forty-six afte 1803.

The first tables were arranged by property, showing for each the owner, the occupyer (tenant or owner) and the sum assessed for the year in question. This changed in 1803, the arrangement now by tenant, showing just the tenants and the sums paid. A tenant with more than one property, in this case Joshua Carby Radway with two, had the sums for the tenancies rolled together. In 1826 the original format returned, listed by property and for the first time identifying it to type (land or house and sometimes by name - paper mill, Manor Farm etc).

The rate of tax (four shillings in the pound) remained constant, though with a few properties showing a very small increase in tax paid from about 1815. It is thus possible to trace holdings through changes of owners and tenants. The identifications from 1826 can provide similar continuity.

During the first period, to 1803, and sporadically in the 1820s the lists contained the signatures of two men, assessors and collectors of taxes. These were normally two of the men who appeared in the list of owners and occupants. Up to three further names also appear, presumably as counter-signatories, each with a seal. These were outsiders.

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The Properties (Houses/Land)

As shown above, most properties are listed only up to 1803. Two continued for a few years beyond that and six continued until the available records finished in 1831.

The properties which disappeared from the lists after 1803 were not identified here but some can recognised in other later sources:
a. All the lands associated with the Tombs family. References to Tombs lands continued throughout the ninetenth century and included a farm owned by Jenkin Thomas of Cheltenham and land farmed by Tombs from Oxfordshire. Details in the Farmers section of this web site.
b. A property (0-17-2) owned by a Mr Dobbins and occupied by Robert Avery which may be Quenington corn mill and smallholding, see under Avery below..
c. A property (3-2-10) owned initially by Charles Stevens of Coln St Aldwyns, then his widow and then her new husband William Harding was bought by Robert Mawley in 1796. This will no doubt be the Mawley Farm that would be in the family for a century and was still in existence in the middle of the twentieth century (see Farmers section).
d. A property (0-12-6) owned by Mrs Stevens and then William Harding and thus associated with 3-2-10 but which did not pass to Robert Mawley.

The two that were not exonerated and which disappeared "mid-stream" were 0-9-4 until 1807, owner John Keble of Coln St Aldwyns, and 1-5-6 until 1815, owned by William and John Fifield also of Coln, to 1815. These are not identified.

The following are listed through the whole period with identifications provided after 1826:
Manor Farm
The glebe lands
The paper mill
Land perhaps including Court Farm
An unidentified house.

Manor Farm (33-7-11)
Manor Farm was taxed at over thirty-three pounds, initially representing around half of all the land tax raised in Quenington and a rather greater proportion when others disappeared from the list after 1803. It was owned throughout by the Hicks Beach family of Williamstrip, Coln St Aldwyns. There were four tenants, including a widow, between 1787 and 1803 after which Charles Price took the tenancy, the first of a family that would be major farmers in the village and at Manor farm until the 1870s.

The paper mill (1-5-9 and 8-14-9/8-15-8)
The paper mill, located near the church, was initially owned by John Raymond Barker with tenant Joshua Carby Radway. The land tax tables would suggest that Radway had become proprietor as well as occupier by 1826, but there is documentation, so far seen only in summary, which may indicate that Barker was still proprietor in 1826 and 1828. Radway was also the tenant of the village glebe land from 1804.

The Glebe Land (7-9-0)
The glebe land was nominally in the ownership of the church rector and was leased out almost certainly as farmland. Here the tenants were those of Manor Farm in 1788 to 1803 and thereafter J C Radway who also held the tenancy of the paper mill.

Unknown Property (1-8-11) (?Court Farm)
There is continuity throughout of property owned at first by Eastcourt Cresswell Esq of Bibury, who was a major landowner and a former Member of Parliament. Initially a single property (1-18-11) with tenants it split into two (as 0-11-2 and 1-7-10) in 1813. One was under unknown ownership and one later owned by a son of Eastcourt Cresswell. Both had passed into the ownership of the Hicks Beach family of Coln St Aldwyns by 1830. The tenant of both under Hicks Beach was a William Stevens. Perhaps he is the man of that name who was farming in Quenington in the early 1840s, almost certainly at Court Farm. If so, then the Cresswell property, at least part of which was land, may have included Court Farm or parts of it.

Unknown house (0-2-10)
There is another property, finally identified as a house, that can be traced throughout the period. There are a variety of owners and tenants. One after 1826 is William Clark. Perhaps he is the William Clarke (as then spelled) who farmed in the village in the 1830s and 1840s.

The tax lists show the apparently large amount of Quenington land owned by outsiders. Prominent are Michael Hicks Beach, landowner of Coln St Aldwyns and elsewhere, Estcourt Cresswell, landowner of Bibury and former Member of Parliament, and John Barker, at one point Lord of the Manor in Fairford. All three attracted the epithet Esquire. Also Robert Mawley who bought land during the period. There were others, for example John Fifield and John Keble of Coln St Aldwyns, and the Tombs family may have been associated with Coln.

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The People

The following are brief details of some of those recorded in the tax lists. This section is subject to additions and amendment when access to sources resumes (see preface above)

Avery
The tax tables show a Robert Avery occupying three properties in Quenington, one (0-17-2) from 1787 to its delisting after 1803 and two briefly in sequence (6-5-6 1787-1790 and 1-5-6 1791-6). The first is likely to have continued beyond 1803 but no details available. In 1796, in documentation relating to his marriage, he is shown as a miller born in 1773. It is likely therefore that one of the Quenington properties, probably that owned by a Mr Dobbins and of which Avery retained the tenancy after his marriage, was the Quenington corn mill. He remained in the village, where children were baptised in the early 1800s. There was also a brief tenure of property in Hatherop: in 1794 he was the occupant of Latham's Close, owned by Andrew Kendall. Jacob Betterton became the owner in 1795 and two years later took over the occupancy from Avery.

Later, in the 1820s and to his death in 1843 a Robert Avery was the tenant miller at Quenington Mill. He had been born in about 1770. Presumably this was the same man, though it should be noted that the earlier activity, which included his being one of the two assessors and collectors of tax in 1787-1792 occurred when he was still in his late teens. One unexplained feature, if it is not an error, is that in 1801 he was shown in the tax return as Robert Avery junior. Full details of Robert Avery, miller, are given in the Farmers section of this site.

For context, the mill had been in different hands in 1776 (voters list), when the house and mill were owned and occupied by a Richard Aldridge. Aldridge died and was buried in Quenington in 1787, when Dobbins and Avery first appear as owner and tenant of the mill.

Barker
John Raymond Barker was of the family that lived in Fairford Park and occupied public office. He was born in Fairford in 1742 and died there in 1827 at the age of 85.

Booker
William Booker Esq occupied property in Quenington and Bibury, and also in Maiseyhampton near Fairford during this the period. The Quenington property (1-7-10) was part of that owned by Eastcourt Cresswell of Bibury. Perhaps he is the William Booker, yeoman of Bibury, who died in June 1837 (details from will). Nothing more is yet known.

Cary
There are a number of documents concerning members of the probably long-standing Cary (or Carey) family in Quenington, including parish records. Among these are references to John Cary a yeoman and his grandson John a carpemter, both in the will of the elder John in 1768. In the will John is the owner of a house which he leaves to his wife, and two houses in (?Lodges) Close in Quenington, one of which is left to his grandson. The range of documents has yet to be studied.

Cresswell
Estcourt Cresswell Esq (1745-1823) lived at Bibury Court in Bibury and owned property in the village as well as that in Quenington. He had been the local Member of Parliament. The Rev Sackville Cresswell (1785-1843) was a younger son and rector of Bibury for 34 years. Much of the estate was sold during his final years, including some to Michael Hicks Beach of Coln St Aldwyns. The splitting of the tax returns into two elements in 1815, both of which ended up with Hicks Beach, would be a reflection of this. .

Etheridge
It is not known how Ann Etheridge obtained ownership of the property (0-3-1) held by John Cary. She was of the Etheridge family of Temple Guiting, where she was born in 1767. In 1798 she became the owner of the property in Quenington. The following year, in Temple Guiting, she married John King of Quenington and the property passed to him. He was already the owner of property in the village. Ann died and was buried in Quenington in 1828 at the age of 62.

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Fifield
John Fifield was the son of the long-serving vicar of Coln St Aldwyns, also John, who died in 1775. He continued to live in Coln after his father's death. William is probably the elder John's brother. He died in Coln in 1790 at the age of 66.

Haines/Haynes
The name is spelt either way in the various documents. This was a Coln St Albans family. William was tenant of a property (6-5-6), then owner and resident, from 1791 to 1797, then his son James until 1803 (William died in Quenington and was buried in Coln in 1798). Children were baptised in Coln between 1777 and 1789 but it is not known whether they were born there or in Quenington). Another son William lived in property 1-5-6 in 1812-15. All three also owned or were tenants in property in Coln St Aldwyns and Bibury. Again there may be more information when acess to sources is possible again.

Hamblett
There are a number of entries in the Quenington parish records (baptism/marriage/burials) for persons with the name Hamlet/Hamblet/Hamblett during the latter part of the eighteenth century but none that could be tied in with the Robert here. This does, however, suggest resident family or families in the village.

Hicks Beach
Michael Hicks Beach was one of the family which owned property (the Williamstrip Estate) in Coln St Aldwyns and in Wiltshire. The tax returns for Quenington show him as the proprietor of Manor Farm (33-7-11) throughout the period (1787-1831). During the period he also acquired the land in Quenington (1-18-11) of Eastcourt Cresswell which might have included Court Farm. The family would continue to purchase land in Quenington and elsewhere in the nineteenth century and the family head would be elevated as Earl Saint Aldwyns in the early twentieth.

Hooper
Jeremiah Hooper, who briefly (1795-1798) held the tenancy of property 0-3-1 in Quenington was probably another from Coln St Aldwyns. A son, also Jeremiah, was baptised there in 1805 and he himself was buried there in 1837 at the age of 71 or 75 (two sources differ). He seems to have had a further interest in Quenington, for in his will of 1835 he bequeathed to his two sons possessions that he held in the village as well as in Coln.

Howse/Howes
Harmon Howes, also shown as Howse, was born in Winson, near Bibury, in 1775. He may have lived in Cirencester at the turn of the century, where he was married in 1798 and where children were born in 1801-1804 and where he occupied property. Thereafter he occupied property in Arlington near Bibury, Winson and Coln St Denis, as well as Quenington, including property of his own in Arlington. A man of his name was a surgeon in Coln Rogers in 1830.

Ivin
There were Ivins in Quenington throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in the second of which they owned property including the Pig and Whistle beerhouse and land, see also the Farmers and Publicans sections of this site. There is also documentation, still to be analysed, relating to holdings in the 1700s.

King
John King came from a long line of farmers in Quenington. In the eighteenth century Edmund was farming at the turn of the century and was not the first. His will includes some details of land purchased from his late grandfather Thomas, probably the Thomas King who died in Quenington in 1686. Edmund's post-mortem inventory shows a man of some wealth, a farmer of livestock and arable lands.

Edmund had one son, also Edmund, to whom he left his possessions. This son was farming in the middle of the century (children born 1750s). No details of his possessions have been seen but the sums of money left to children (he was a widower when he died in 1776) showed considerable wealth.

Edmund junior had two sons and some daughters. In his will he left all except certain sums of money and part possession of his house, to eldest son, again Edmund. However, there is no sign of Edmund in the tax tables eleven years later, and his whereabouts is not known. Instead it is the second son John, born in 1755, who appears.

John, a farmer, married Anne Etheridge from Lower Guiting in her home town in 1799 and the pair lived in Quenington. In the tax tables he has interest in four properties, variously as owner and/or occupier. Two of them were delisted in 1803 and are thus unlocated and unidentified. These are 3-2-4 which he held from the beginning and whose tax rates suggest that it was land, and 0-3-1 which he acquired as the result of his marriage to owner Ann Etheridge. There was also a house (0-2-10) from 1815 and interest in part of the Cresswell lands (0-11-2) at the end of his life. His name is associated with these two until 1826/1827, after his death in about 1824. Perhaps they were being held in his name for the benefit of his wife, who died in 1827. There are no known children, but the fate of the last two properties after the couple's death can be assessed from the tax tables. Both John and Ann left wills and access to these is eagerly awaited.

Mawley (sometimes as Morley)
The tax tables show that Robert Mawley bought land in Quenington in 1796 and continued to hold it in 1803 when it was delisted. This must be what became known as Mawley Farm, which the family owned for a century. They were absentee landlords who appear to have been wealthy landowners shown in Quenington records over the years as living variously in Blackheath Kent, Reigate, Fairford and Ipswich and in other records to have had a base in London. See the farmer section of this web site.

Miffling
Robert and John Miffling were father and son in the family of that name living in Hawling (written as Halling in some documents). The Quenington voters list of 1776 shows Robert Mifflin (sic) of Halling having ownership of a house and orchard in the village, occupied by John Mifflin, which is compatible with the land tax records from 1787. In his will of 1808, proved in 1810, Robert left to his son John his "freeland house in Quenington together with garding [sic] and all the buildings thereunto belonging". The tax records are compatible with this, except that John was more often the tenant with other owners. Nothing more is known about the family. This was not the family's main house, which was presumably in Hawling and was left to another son.

Hawling is a village near Guiting Power some 18 miles by road north of Quenington. There was a Miffling family in Quenington at the time but any relationship with that at Hawling is unknown, nor are the occupations of any of the Mifflings known.

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Price
Several generations of the Price family lived in Quenington in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, tenant farmers during the first eight decades of the latter, variously at Manor and Court Farms, and before that farming the glebe land. They left at the end of the 1870s following the major reorganisation of farming in the village. Full details in the Farmers section of this web site.

Radway
Joshua Carby Radway was baptised in Cirencester in 1770. He was in Quenington by 1787 when he was occupying premises owned by John Raymond Barker Esq. later shown to be the paper mill. Children were born there in the first two decades of the nineteenth century, and he was shown as a paper manufacturer in 1813 at baptism of daughter Mary. The tax lists suggest that by 1826 he was owner as well as occupier of the mill, but there are sources, seen so far only in summary, which may suggest otherwise. He also occupied the village glebe lands, presumably farming them, from probably 1805. He died and was buried in Quenington in 1840.

Stevens (Stephens)
Hannah Stevens, as she appears in the Coln St Aldwyns records, was a Wakefield. In 1772 she married Charles Stevens (Stephens) of Coln St Aldwyns. The 1776 voters list for Quenington shows him living in Coln and the owner of houses and land in Quenington occupied by himself and Charles Price. Stevens died in 1781. From 1787 (first available date) Hannah is the owner of a property (3-2-10) and owner and occupier of another (0-12-6). The first was ccupied by John Wakefield, Charles Steven's heir (see Wakefield below). Hannah married William Harding in 1791 and the records then show him as owner of both properties. The first was sold to Robert Mawley in 1796 and Harding's name disappears from the record. But he continues to own and occupy the second until like the first, it was delisted after 1803. Hannah died in 1803.

Hannah, William Harding and John Wakefield also appear in the Coln St Aldwyns tax recoids, in this case with Wakefield as owner, See under Wakefield below.

Tombs, also as Tombes

There are four probably of this family in the Quenington tax records, Henry, John probably his brother and James his son. There was also a Henry junior of unknown relationship. John and Henry must be the sons who were legatees in the will in 1756 of James Tombs, yeoman of Quenington, sons of James and Esther baptised in Quenington in 1720 and 1725.

Both John and Henry owned property when the available tax records begin in 1787. Before then, a Henry Tombs had been shown in the list of voters in 1776 as the owner of land in Quenington occupied by a Stephen Court. Henry's address was St Austin, London, and Court may have been the man of that name who died in Coln St Aldwyns in 1784, possibly the son of the blacksmith there. Henry was substantial enough to be the tenant at Manor Farm in 1787, but he gave that up the following year. Then he had interest as owner and occupant of two other properties, 0-4-0 and 4-17-6, perhaps residence and farm. These passed to son James following Henry's death in 1797. Henry also occupied a property (0-6-4)owned by his brother John which also passed to James after Henry's death, There was also another (0-3-1) owned by a Henry Tombs junior in 1787 to 1791 but occupied by Samuel Ivin. It then passed to others not known to be related; it is possible that Henry junior did not live in Quenington.

All of the properties except Manor Farm were delisted after 1803 following the application of the Land Tax Redemption Act and all thus remain unidentified. However, there are various later references to Tombs Farms in other documents, particularly one owned by the Rev Jenkin Thomas of Cheltenham, who married James's daughter Mary Harriet. Details of this and later references in the Farmer section of this site. There is a long and detailed will extant drawn up by James Tombs which might throw light on the Tombs holdings at this time.

Wakefield
Thomas Wakefield who was the tenant of Robert Mawley in property 3-2-10 was the first of a family associated with Mawley Farm during the nineteenth century, see the Farming part of this web site.

John Wakefield was the heir of Charles Stevens, charged with holding his assets in trust for the benefit of his widow Harriet. He was described in Charles's will as from Gravesend, Kent, gentleman, and was perhaps related to the Wakefields of Quenington, of which Harriet Stevens was one (see item above), though this relatioship has yet to be established. In Quenington he occupied one of the properties (3-2-1) owned by Hannah Stevens and then her new husband William Harding until it was purchased by Robert Mawley.

The situation was slightly different in Coln where john was the owner of a property with Harriet and then William Harding as tenants, later described as a house, garden and malthouse. It was exonerated but unlike in Quenington exonerated properties continued to be listed. Following Hannah's death in 1803 there was a new tenant William Simpson, who later became owner on John Wakefield's death.

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Wakefield presumably lived in the area, Quenington or Coln St Aldwyns, during all of this. He was one of the signatories, assessors and collectors, on the Quenington tax returns in 1790-1792 He died in 1819 at an unknown location and was buried in St George's Graveyard, Gravesend. Kent.

23rd November 2020